Reported Biological Effects from Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR)
at Low-Intensity Exposure Levels
(Cell Tower, WI-FI, Wireless Laptop, Wireless Utility Meters ‘smart meters’)
Prepared November 22, 2012 by:
Cindy Sage. MA, Sage Associates
Acherman P et al, 2000. Exposure to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field during waking affects human sleep EEG. NeuroReport 11(15):3321-3325.
Adey, WR et al, 1999. Incidence of spontaneous and nitrosourea-induced primary tumors of the central nervous system in Fischer 344 rats chronically exposed to modulated microwaves. Radiation Research 152: 293-302.
Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, Varghese A, Mouradi R, Sabanegh E, Sharma R. 2009. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 92(4) 1318-1325.
Aitken RJ, Bennetts LE, Sawyer D, Wiklendt AM, King BV. 2005 Impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline 28:171-179.
Akoev, IG et al, 2002. Enzymatic activity of some tissues and blood serum from animals and humans exposed to microwaves and hypothesis on the possible role of free radical processes in the nonlinear effects and modification of emotional behavior of animals. Radiats Biol Radioecol, 42(3):32-330.
Atasoy HI, Gunal MY, Atasoy P, Elgun S, Bugdayci G. 2012 Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices. J Pediatr Urol. [Epub ahead of print]
Avendano C, Mata A, Sanchez Sarmiento CA, Doncei GF. 2012. Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertility and Sterility. American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.10.012.
Beason, RC & Semm, P, 2002. Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stumuls. Neuroscience Letters 333:175-178.
Behari J, Kesari KK 2006. Effects of microwave radiations on reproductive system of male rats. Embryo Talk 1 (Suppl.1):81-5.
Belokrinitsky, VS, 1982,. Destructive and reparative processes in hippocampus with long-term exposure to nonionizing radiation. In: U.S.S.R. Report, Effects of Nonionizing Microwave Radiation, No. 7, JPRS 81865, pp. 15-20.
Belyaev IY, Alipov YD, Harms-Ringdahl M. 1997. Effects of zero magnetic field on the conformation of chromatin in human cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1336(3):465-473.
Belyaev IY, Hillert L, Protopopova M, Tamm C, Malmgren LO, Persson BR, Selivanova G, Harms-Ringdahl M. 2005. 915 MHz microwaves and 50 Hz magnetic field affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1 foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons. Bioelectromagnetics. 26(3):173-184.
Belyaev IY, Markova E, Hillert L, Malmgren LOG, Persson BRR. 2009. Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce long- lasting inhibition of 53BP1/γ-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes. Bioelectromagnetics 30(2):129-41.
Bolshakov, MA & Alekseev, SI, 1992. Bursting responses of Lymnea neurons to microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 13(2): 119-129.
Borbely, AA et al, 1999. Pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic field affects human sleep and sleep electroencephalogram. Neuroscience Letters 275(3): 207-210.
Boscolo et al, 2001. Effects of electromagnetic fields produced by radiotelevision broadcasting stations on the immune system of women. Sci Total Environ 273(1-3):1-10.
Buchner K, Eger H., 2011. Changes of Clinically Important Neurotransmitters under the Influence of Modulated RF Fields—A Long-term Study under Real-life ConditionsUmwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft 24(1): 44-57. Original study in German.
Chia SE et al, 2000. Prevalence of headache among handheld cellular telephone users in Singapore: A Community Study. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(11):1059-1062.
Chiang, H et al, 1989. Health effects of environmental electromagnetic fields. Journal of Bioelectricity 8: 127-131.
Chou, CK et al, 1992. Long-term low level microwave irradiation of rats. Bioelectromagnetics 13:469-496.
Czyz J et al, 2004. High frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM signals) affect gene expression levels in tumor suppressor p53-deficient embryonic stem cells. Bioelectromagnetics 25: 296-307.
Dasdag, S et al, 1999. Whole-body microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats. Urological Research 27(3):219-223.
D’Costa, H et al. 2003. Human brain wave activity during exposure to radiofrequency field emissions from mobile phones. Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 4
De Pomerai, D et al, 2000. Non-thermal heat-shock response to microwaves. Nature 405: 417-418.
D’Inzeo, G et al, 1988. Microwave effects on acetylcholine-induced channels in cultured chick myotubes. Bioelectromagnetics 9: 363-372.
De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV, Aitken RJ. 2009. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro. PLoS One 4(7):e6446.
Dolk, H et al, 1997. Cancer incidence near radio and television transmitters in Great Britain. American Journal of Epidemiology 145(1): 1-9.
Dumansky, JD & Shandala, MG, 1974. The biological action and hygenic significance of elecromagnetic fields of superhigh and ultrahigh frequencies in densely populated areas. In: Biological Effects and Health Hazards of Microwave Radiation. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Czerski, P et al, (Eds) Warsaw, 15-18 October 1973, Polish Medical Publishers.
Dutta, SK et al, 1989. Radiofrequency radiation-induced calcium ion efflux enhancement from human and other neuroblastoma cells in culture. Bioelectromagnetics 10: 197-202.
Elekes, E, 1996. Effect on the immune system of mice exposed chronically to 50 Hz amplitude-modulated 2.45 GHz microwaves. Bioelectromagnetics 17:246-248.
Eltiti S, Wallace D, Ridgewell A, Zougkou K, Russo R, Sepulveda F, Mirshekar-Syahkal D, Rasor P, Deeble R, Fox E. 2007. Does short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals increase symptoms in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields? A double-blind randomized provocation study. Environ Health Perspect 115(11): 1603-8.
Eltiti S, Wallace D, Ridgewell A, Zougkou K, Russo R, Sepulveda F, Fox E. 2009. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls. Bioelectromagnetics 30(7):556-63.
Federal Communications Commission, 1997. OET Bulletin 65: 1997-01
Fesenko, EE et al, 1999. Microwaves and cellular immunity. I. Effect of whole body microwave irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 49 (1): 29-35.
Garaj-Vrhrovac, V et al, 1999. Micronucleus assay and lymphocyte mitotic activity in risk assessment of occupational exposure to microwave radiation. Chemosphere 39 (13) 2301-2312.
Grundler W, Kaiser F, Keilmann F, Walleczek J. 1992. Mechanisms of electromagnetic interaction with cellular systems. Naturwissenschaften 79(12):551-9.
Hamblin, D. et al, 2004. Examining the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM mobile phones on human event-related potentials and performance during an auditory task. Clinical Neurophysiology 115:171-178.
Hamnerius, Y, 2000. Microwave exposure from mobile phones and base stations in Sweden. International Conference on Cell Tower Siting, June 7-8, 2000, Sponsored by the University of Vienna & LandSalzburg, Salzburg, Austria.
Heinrich S, Thomas S, Heumann C, von Kries R, Radon K. 2010. Association between exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields assessed by dosimetry and acute symptoms in children and adolescents: a population based cross-sectional study. Environ Health 9:75.
Hjollund NH, Bonde JP, Skotte J, 1997 Semen analysis of personnel operating military radar equipment. Reprod Toxicol 11(6):897
Hocking, B et al, 1996. Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers Medical Journal of Australia 165(11-12): 601-605.
Hocking, B et al, 2000. Decreased survival for childhood leukemia in proximity to TV towers. Poster presented at the Annual Scientific Meeeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians in Adelaide, SA, Australia, May 2000.
Huber, R et al, 2002. Electromagnetic fields, such as those from mobile phonesm alter regional cerebral blood flow and sleep and waking EEG. J. Sleep Res. 11: 289-295.
Hutter HP, Moshammer H, Wallner P. Kundi M. 2006. Subjective symp- toms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations, Occup. Environ. Med. 63. 307–313.
IEEE, 1999. C95: 1-1999(US)
Ilhan A, Gurel A, Armutcu F, Kamisli S, Iraz M, Akyol O, Ozen S. 2004, Ginkgo biloba prevents mobile phone-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Clin Chim Acta. 340(1-2): 153-162.
Ilhan, A et al. 2004. Ginkgo biloba prevents mobile phone-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Clinica Chimica Acta 340, 153-162.
Ivaschuk, OI et al, 1997. Exposure of nerve growth factor-treated PC 12 rat pheochromocytoma cells to a modulated radiofrequency field at 836.55 MHz: effects on c-jun and c-fos expression. Bioelectromagnetics 18 (3): 223-229.
Koivisto, M et al, 2000a. Effects of 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones on response times in humans. Neuroreport 11: 413-415.
Koivisto, M et al, 2000b. The effects of electromagnetic field emitted by GSM phones on working memory. Neuroreport 11:1641-1643.
Kolodynski, AA, & Kolodynska VV, 1996. Motor and psychological functions of school children living in the area of the Skrunda radio location station in Latvia. Science of the Total Environment 180:87-93.
Krause, CM et al, 2000. Effects of electromagnetic field emitted by a cellular phone on the EEG during a memory task. Neuroreport 11:761-764.
Kues, HA et al, 1992. Increased sensitivity of the non-human primate eye to radiation following opthalmic drug pretreatment. Bioelectromagnetics 13:379-393.
Kumar S Behari J Sisodia R. 2012. Impact of Microwave at X-Band in the aetiology of male infertility. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 31(3): 223–232. online DOI: 10.3109/15368378.2012.700293.
Kundi M. Hutter HP. 2009. Mobile phone base stations—Effects on wellbeing and health. Pathophysiology 16 123–135.
Kwee, S et al, 1997. The biological effects of microwave radiation. Proceedings of the Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, Bologna, Italy, June 1997.
Kwee, S et al, 2001. Changes in cellular protiens due to environmental non-ionizing radiation. I. Heat-shock protiens. Electro-and Magnetobiology 20:141-152.
Lai H, & Singh, NP, 1996. Single and double strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells after acute exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. International Journal of Radiation Biology 69:513-21.
Lass, J et al, 2002. Effects of 7 Hz-modulated 450 MHz electromagnetic radiation on human performance in visual memory tasks. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 73(10): 937-944.
Lebedeva NN et al, 2000. Cellular phone electromagnetic field effects on bioelectric activity of human brain. Crit Rev Biomed Eng 28(1-2) 323-337.
Leszczynski, D et al, 2002. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in the human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation 70: 120-129.
Leszczynski, D et al, 2004. Proteomics analysis of human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 after exposue to GSM 900 radiation. Short Communication. Proteomics 4, 1359-1365.
Lu, ST et al, 1999. Ultrawide-band electromagnetic pulses induced hypotension in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 67:753-761.
Magras, IN & Zenos, TD, 1997. RF Radiation-induced changes in the prenatal development of mice. Bioelectromagnetics 18:455-461.
Mann, K et al, 1996. Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on human sleep. Neuropsychobiology 33:41-47.
Mann, K et al, 1998. Effects of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrinology 67: 139-144.
Mantiply, ED et al, 1997. Summary of measured radiofrequency electric and magnetic fields (10 kHz to 30 GHz) in the general and work environment. Bioelectromagnetics 18: 563-577.
Markova E, Hillert L, Malmgren L, Persson BRR, Belyaev IY. 2005. Microwaves from GSM mobile telephones affect 53BP1 and y-H2AX foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 113: No. 91 1172-1177
Marinelli, F La Sala D Ciccciotti G Cattini L Trimarchi C Putti S Zamparelli A Giuilani L Tomassetti G Cinti C. 2004. Exposure to 900 MHz Electromagnetic Field induces an unbalance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signals in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology 198: 324 – 332.
Mohler E, Frei P, Braun-Fahrländer C, Fröhlich J, Neubauer G, Röösli M; Qualifex Team. 2010. Effects of everyday radiofrequency electromagnetic-field exposure on sleep quality: a cross-sectional study. Radiat Res 174(3):347-56.
Oberfeld, G Enrique, NA Manuel P Ceferino M Gomez-Perrretta C. 2004. The Microwave Syndrome – Further Aspects of a Spanish Study. 3rd International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. Kos, Greece.
Otitoloju AA, Obe IA, Adewale OA, Otubanjo OA, Osunkalu VO. 2010. Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 84(1):51-4.
Navakatikian, MA & Tomashevskaya, LA, 1994 Phasic behavioral and endocrine effects of microwaves of nonthermal intensity. In: Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields, Volume 1, Carpenter, DO, (Ed.) Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA., pp. 333-342.
Navarro EA, Sequra J, Portoles M, Gomez-Perretta de Mateo C. 2003. The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain. Electromag Biol Med 22:161-169,
Novoselova, EG et al, 1999. Microwaves and cellular immunity. II Immunostimulating effects of microwaves and naturally occurring antioxident nutrients. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 49 (1): 37-41.
Paulraj R, Behari J. 2004. Radio frequency radiation effects on protein kinase C activity in rats’ brain. Mutat Res. 545(1-2):127-130,
Persson, RR et al, 1997. Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication. Wireless Networks 3:455-461.
Paredi P et al, 2001. Local Vasodilator Response to Mobile Phones. Laryngoscope 111: 159-162.
Phillips, J et al, 1998. DNA damage in molt-4 lymphoblastoid cells exposed to cellular telephone radiofrequency fields in vitro. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 45:103-110.
Preece. A et al, 1999. Effect of a 915-MHz simulated mobile phone signal on cognitive function in man. International Journal of Radiation Biology 75: 447-456.
Pyrpasopoulou, A et al, 2004. Bone morphogenetic protein expression in newborn rat kidneys after prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 25: 216-227.
Ray, S & Behari, J, 1990. Physiological changes in rats after exposure to low levels of microwaves. Radiation Research 123: 190-202.
Repacholi, M. et al, 1997. Lymphomas in Eµ-Pim1 transgenic mice exposed to pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields. Radiation Research 147:31-40.
Richter, E et al, 2000. Cancer in radar technicians exposed to radiofrequency/microwave radiation: sentinel episodes. International Journal of Occupational Health 6(3): 187-193.
Riddervold IS, Pedersen GF, Andersen NT, Pedersen AD, Andersen JB, Zachariae R, Mølhave L, Sigsgaard T, Kjaergaard SK. 2008. Cognitive function and symptoms in adults and adolescents in relation to RF radiation from UMTS base stations. Bioelectromagnetics 29(4):257-67.
Sage Associates, 2004. An Overview of Low-Intensity Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation Studies Relevant to Wireless Communications and Data. Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting, Washington DC, June 2004. Sage Associates, 2004. Epidemiology for Decisionmakers: A Visual Guide to Residential and Occupational EMF Epidemiological Results on Leukemia 1979-2004. International Conference on Leukemia, London, September 2004. Children with Leukemia Trust (UK Registered Charity No. 298405).
Sage Associates, 2000. An overview of radiofrequency/microwave radiation studies relevant to wireless communications and data. International Conference on Cell Tower Siting, Salzburg, Austria, Land Salzburg-Landessanitatsdirektion – Umweltmedizin, Federal State of Salzburg Public Health Department, Environmental Health Unit, June 7-8, 2000.
Salford, LG et al. 1994. Permeability of the blood brain barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50 and 200 Hz. Microscopy Research and Technique 27:535-542.
Salford, LG et al, 2003. Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environmental Health Perspectives Online January 29.
Sandstrom M et al, 2001. Mobile phone use and subjective symptoms. Comparison of symptoms experienced by users of analogue and digital mobile phones. Occup Med 51(1) 25-35.
Santini R et al, 2001. Symptoms rapportes par des utilisateurs de telephones mobiles cellulaires. Path Biol 49:222-226.
Sarimov, R., Malmgren, L.O.G., Markova, E., Persson, B.R.R.. Belyaev, I.Y. 2004. Nonthermal GSM microwaves affect chromatin conformation in human lymphocytes similar to heat shock. IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 32:1600-1608,
Schirmacher, A et al, 2000. Electromagnetic fields (1.8 GHz) increase the permeability of sucrose of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics 21:338-345.
Schmidt M Murbach M Inelustenberger C Maire M Kuster N Achermann P. s2012. Sleep EEG alterations: effects of pulsed magnetic fields versus pulse-modulated radio frequency electromagnetic fields. J. Sleep Research, European Sleep Research Society DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01025.x.
Schwartz, JL et al, 1990. Exposure of frog hearts to CW or amplitude-modulated VHF fields: selective efflux of calcium ions at 16Hz. Bioelectromagnetics 11(4): 349-358.
Seaman, RL et al, 1999. Hyperactivity caused by nitric oxide synthase inhibitor is countered by ultra-wide band pulses. Bioelectromagnetics 20: 431-439.
Somosy, Z et al, 1991. Effects of modulated and continuous microwave irradiation on the morphology and cell surface negative charge of 3T3 fibroblasts. Scanning Microsc 5(4):1145-1155.
Somosy, Z et al, 1993. Effects of modulated and continuous microwave irradiation on pyroantimonate precipitable calcium content in junctional complex of mouse small intestine. Scanning Microsc 7(4): 1255-1261.
Stagg RB et al, 1997. DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in C6 glioma and primary glial cells exposed to 836.55 MHz modulated radiofrequency field. Bioelectromagnetics 18(3):230-236.
Stang A et al, 2001. The possible role of radiofrequency radiation in the development of uveal melanoma. Epidemiology 12(1):7-12.
Stankiewicz W, Dąbrowski MP, Kubacki R, Sobiczewska E, Szmigielski S. 2006. Immunotropic Influence of 900 MHz Microwave GSM Signal on Human Blood Immune Cells Activated in Vitro. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 25(1) 45-51.
Stark KD et al, 1997. Absence of chronic effect of exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle. J Pineal Res 22(4):171:176.
Sun W, Shen X, Lu D, Fu Y, Chiang H. 2012. A 1.8-GHz radiofrequency radiation induces EGF receptor clustering and phosphorylation in cultured human amniotic (FL) cells. Int J Radiat Biol 88(3):239-44.
Szmigielski, S et al, 1982. Accelerated development of spontaneous and benzpyrene-induced skin cancer in mice exposed to 2350 MHz microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 3: 179-192.
Tattersall, JE et al, 2001. Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices. Brain Res 904(1): 43-53.
Thomas S, Kühnlein A, Heinrich S, Praml G, Nowak D, von Kries R, Radon K. 2008. Personal exposure to mobile phone frequencies and well-being in adults: a cross-sectional study based on dosimetry. Bioelectromagnetics 29:463-470.
Thomas S, Heinrich S, von Kries R, Radon K. 2010. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and behavioural problems in Bavarian children and adolescents. Eur J Epidemiol 25(2):135-41.
TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Netherlands. 2003. Effects of Global Communication System radio-frequency fields on well-being and cognitive functions of human beings with and without subjective complaints. Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research 1-63.
Trosic, I et al, 2002. Micronucleus induction after whole-body microwave irradiation of rats. Mutation Research 521: 73-79.
Velizarov, S et al, 1999. The effects of radiofrequency fields on cell proliferation are non-thermal. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 48: 177-180.
Veyret, B et al, 1991. Antibody responses of mice exposed to low-power microwaves under combined, pulse and amplitude modulation. Bioelectromagnetics 12: 47-56.
Weisbrot, D et al, 2003. Effects of mobile phone radiation on reproduction and development in Drosophila melanogastor. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 89: 48-55.
Wolke, S et al, 1996. Calcium homeostasis of isolated heart muscle cells exposed to pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 17(2): 144-153.
All rights reserved per Sections 107 and 108 of the United States Copyright Act. Permission is required to reproduce this publication in any form or by any means.
Requests: Cindy Sage, Sage Associates (firstname.lastname@example.org)